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Flyway Documentation

Oracle

Supported Versions

All editions are supported, including XE.

Support Level

Compatible
Certified
Guaranteed Flyway Teams

Support Level determines the degree of support available for this database (learn more).

Driver

URL format jdbc:oracle:thin:@//host:port/service
jdbc:oracle:thin:@tns_entry *
Ships with Flyway Command-line Yes
Maven Central coordinates com.oracle.database.jdbc:ojdbc8:19.6.0.0
Supported versions 18.3.0.0 and later
Default Java class oracle.jdbc.OracleDriver

* TNS_ADMIN environment variable must point to the directory of where tnsnames.ora resides

SQL Script Syntax

  • Standard SQL syntax with statement delimiter ;
  • PL/SQL blocks starting with DECLARE or BEGIN and finishing with END; /

Compatibility

  • DDL exported by Oracle can be used unchanged in a Flyway migration
  • Any Oracle SQL script executed by Flyway can be executed by SQL*Plus and other Oracle-compatible tools (after the placeholders have been replaced)

Example

/* Single line comment */
CREATE TABLE test_user (
  name VARCHAR(25) NOT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY(name)
);

/*
Multi-line
comment
*/
-- PL/SQL block
CREATE TRIGGER test_trig AFTER insert ON test_user
BEGIN
   UPDATE test_user SET name = CONCAT(name, ' triggered');
END;
/

-- Placeholder
INSERT INTO ${tableName} (name) VALUES ('Mr. T');

SQL*Plus commands

Flyway Teams

In addition to the regular Oracle SQL syntax, Flyway Teams also comes with support for many Oracle SQL*Plus commands.

This support is disabled by default and must be activated using the oracle.sqlplus flag.

Supported commands

The following commands are fully supported and can be used just like any regular command within your SQL migrations:

  • @ (only files, no URLs)
  • @@ (only files, no URLs)
  • DEFINE
  • EXECUTE
  • PROMPT
  • REMARK
  • SET DEFINE
  • SET ECHO
  • SET ESCAPE
  • SET FEEDBACK
  • SET FLAGGER
  • SET HEADING
  • SET LINESIZE (DBMS_OUTPUT only)
  • SET NULL
  • SET SCAN
  • SET SERVEROUTPUT
  • SET SUFFIX
  • SET TERMOUT
  • SET TIME
  • SET TIMING
  • SET VERIFY
  • SHOW CON_ID
  • SHOW DEFINE
  • SHOW ECHO
  • SHOW EDITION
  • SHOW ERRORS
  • SHOW ESCAPE
  • SHOW FEEDBACK
  • SHOW HEADING
  • SHOW LINESIZE
  • SHOW NULL
  • SHOW RELEASE
  • SHOW SCAN
  • SHOW SERVEROUTPUT
  • SHOW SUFFIX
  • SHOW TERMOUT
  • SHOW TIME
  • SHOW TIMING
  • SHOW USER
  • SHOW VERIFY
  • SPOOL
  • START (only files, no URLs)
  • UNDEFINE
  • WHENEVER SQLERROR CONTINUE
  • WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT FAILURE
  • WHENEVER SQLERROR EXIT SQL.SQLCODE

The short form of these commands is also supported.

Site Profiles (glogin.sql) & User Profiles (login.sql)

This feature allows you to set up your SQL*Plus environment to use the same settings with each session. It allows you to execute statements before every script run, and is typically used to configure the session in a consistent manner by calling SQL*Plus commands such as SET FEEDBACK and SET DEFINE.

Flyway will look for login.sql in all the valid migration locations, and load it if present. glogin.sql will be loaded from $ORACLE_HOME/sqlplus/admin/glogin.sql in UNIX, and ORACLE_HOME\sqlplus\admin\glogin.sql otherwise.

Profiles are only loaded when oracle.sqlplus is enabled.

Output

When SET SERVEROUTPUT ON is invoked, output produced by DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE will be shown in the console.

Variable substitution

By default SQL*Plus variable substitution support is enabled. &VAR-style variables will automatically be replaced with the matching value supplied by either Flyway’s regular placeholder configuration or a DEFINE command. Use of these variables can be disabled in the usual way using the SET DEFINE OFF command.

While SQL*Plus is interactive and will prompt for missing variable values, Flyway does not; it is an error not to provide a value for all variables that need to be substituted.

Statements which contain a &VAR-style expression which is not intended to be substituted, such as in a literal string, will either require SET DEFINE OFF beforehand, or some alternative construct to avoid use of the ampersand.

For more information, see the SQL*Plus documentation.

Authentication

JDBC

Oracle supports user and password being provided in the JDBC URL, in the form

jdbc:oracle:thin:<user>/<password>@//<host>:<port>/<database>

In this case, they do not need to be passed separately in configuration and the Flyway commandline will not prompt for them.

Oracle Wallet

You can supply credentials using Oracle Wallet by specifying properties on the JDBC url. For example:

jdbc:oracle:thin:@dbname_high?TNS_ADMIN=/Users/test/wallet_dbname

See the Oracle documentation for more details.

Kerberos

Flyway Teams

You can authenticate using Kerberos by specifying the location of the local Kerberos configuration file (which contains details such as the locations of Kerberos Key Distribution Centers), and optionally the local credential cache, to Flyway. For example, in flyway.conf:

flyway.oracle.kerberosConfigFile=/etc/krb5.conf
flyway.oracle.kerberosCacheFile=/tmp/krb5cc_123

Proxy Authentication

Flyway Teams

Flyway allows you to proxy through other users during migrations. You can read about how to enable proxying for users here.

To configure Flyway to use a proxy connection, you need to add to jdbcProperties a key PROXY_USER_NAME whose value is the name of the user you are trying to proxy as. For example, if you connect as user A to Flyway (i.e. flyway.user=A) and you want to proxy as user B for migrations, you need to add flyway.jdbcproperties.PROXY_USER_NAME=B.

Limitations

  • SPATIAL EXTENSIONS: sdo_geom_metadata can only be cleaned for the user currently logged in

SQL*Plus

Unsupported commands

Not all SQL*Plus commands are supported by Flyway. Unsupported commands are gracefully ignored with a warning message.

Behavior parity

As much as possible, Flyway aims to emulate the behavior of the SQL*Plus client in Oracle SQL Developer. However, there are some edge cases where Flyway isn’t able to emulate the behavior exactly. Known cases are detailed below:

  • Abbreviations: Flyway is limited by JDBC support for particular commands, and this is more strict than the SQL*Plus client; in general abbreviations are supported by Flyway as documented here, so for example SHOW ERRORS can be abbreviated to SHO ERR, but not SHOW ERROR (which is accepted by the client).

  • SQL*Plus is known to replace CRLF pairs in string literals with single LFs. Flyway will not do this - instead it preserves scripts as they are written

If you encounter a discrepancy between the Oracle SQL*Plus client and Flyway, let us know via the official support email.

Referenced scripts and checksums

Flyway includes any referenced scripts when calculating checksums. This also extends to login.sql and glogin.sql since their contents can affect the reproducibility of a migration and can differ in different environments.

Known issues and workarounds

Implementing a compatible solution to some problems isn’t always possible, so we document those problems and the valid workarounds.

Flyway alters the current schema to the specified default schema as this is where the schema history table should reside. This causes remote links to fail in migrations that expect the current schema to be the user’s. The workarounds for this are:

  • Create the remote link via dynamic SQL in a stored procedure that resides in the correct schema. Stored procedures execute as the schema owner, so the remote link is created in the correct schema
  • Use beforeEachMigrate and afterEachMigrate callbacks to alter the current schema as needed

SQL Server