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SQL Server

Supported Versions

Driver

URL format jdbc:sqlserver://host:port;databaseName=database
SSL support Yes - add ;encrypt=true
Ships with Flyway Command-line Yes
Maven Central coordinates com.microsoft.sqlserver:mssql-jdbc:7.2.0.jre8
Supported versions 4.0 and later
Default Java class com.microsoft.sqlserver.jdbc.SQLServerDriver

SQL Script Syntax

Compatibility

  • DDL exported by SQL Server can be used unchanged in a Flyway migration.
  • Any SQL Server sql script executed by Flyway, can be executed by Sqlcmd, SQL Server Management Studio and other SQL Server-compatible tools (after the placeholders have been replaced).

Example

/* Single line comment */
CREATE TABLE Customers (
CustomerId smallint identity(1,1),
Name nvarchar(255),
Priority tinyint
)
CREATE TABLE Sales (
TransactionId smallint identity(1,1),
CustomerId smallint,
[Net Amount] int,
Completed bit
)
GO

/*
Multi-line
comment
*/
-- TSQL
CREATE TRIGGER dbo.Update_Customer_Priority
 ON dbo.Sales
AFTER INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE
AS
WITH CTE AS (
 select CustomerId from inserted
 union
 select CustomerId from deleted
)
UPDATE Customers
SET
 Priority =
   case
     when t.Total < 10000 then 3
     when t.Total between 10000 and 50000 then 2
     when t.Total > 50000 then 1
     when t.Total IS NULL then NULL
   end
FROM Customers c
INNER JOIN CTE ON CTE.CustomerId = c.CustomerId
LEFT JOIN (
 select
   Sales.CustomerId,
   SUM([Net Amount]) Total
 from Sales
 inner join CTE on CTE.CustomerId = Sales.CustomerId
 where
   Completed = 1
 group by Sales.CustomerId
) t ON t.CustomerId = c.CustomerId
GO

-- Placeholder
INSERT INTO ${tableName} (name) VALUES ('Mr. T');

Authentication

SQL Server supports several methods of authentication. These include:

  • SQL Server Authentication
  • Windows Authentication
  • Azure Active Directory

SQL Server Authentication works ‘out-of-the-box’ with Flyway, whereas Windows Authentication and Azure Active Directory require extra manual setup.

The instructions provided here are adapted from the Microsoft JDBC Driver for SQL Server documentation. Refer to this when troubleshooting authentication problems.

Note These instructions may be incomplete. Flyway depends on Microsoft’s JDBC drivers, which in turn have many environmental dependencies to enable different authentication types. You may have to perform your own research to get the JDBC driver working for the different authentication types.

SQL Server Authentication

This uses a straightforward username and password to authenticate. Provide these with the user and password configuration options.

Windows Authentication & Azure Active Directory

Windows Authentication and Azure Active Directory require an extra driver to be installed:

  • Go to the ‘Download Microsoft JDBC Driver for SQL Server’ page
  • Download the .tar.gz file for the JDBC version used by Flyway
    • The version can be seen in the ‘Maven Central coordinates’ url under the Driver section at the top of this page
  • Extract the contents of the file
  • Look for sqljdbc_auth.dll, under sqljdbc_{version}\enu\auth\x64
  • Copy sqljdbc_auth.dll to an accessible location in your environment (e.g. C:\jdbc-drivers\)
  • Add the location of sqljdbc_auth.dll to your PATH environment variable

Windows Authentication

Windows Authentication, also known as Integrated Security, is enabled by amending your JDBC connection string to set integratedSecurity=true.

Example: jdbc:sqlserver://host:port;databaseName=database;integratedSecurity=true.

Azure Active Directory

There are several types of Azure Active Directory authentication:

  • Azure Active Directory with MFA (not supported)*
  • Azure Active Directory Integrated
  • Azure Active Directory MSI
  • Azure Active Directory with Password

For MSI and Integrated, amend your JDBC URL to set the authentication parameter:

  • For Active Directory Integrated set authentication=ActiveDirectoryIntegrated
    • e.g: jdbc:sqlserver://host:port;databaseName=database;authentication=ActiveDirectoryIntegrated
  • For Active Directory MSI set authentication=ActiveDirectoryMSI
    • e.g: jdbc:sqlserver://host:port;databaseName=database;authentication=ActiveDirectoryMSI
  • For Active Directory With Password set authentication=ActiveDirectoryPassword
    • e.g: jdbc:sqlserver://host:port;databaseName=database;authentication=ActiveDirectoryPassword
    • You must also supply a username and password with Flyway’s user and password configuration options

Note: You may also need to add ADAL4J and its dependencies to your classpath. See the ADAL4J GitHub page.

The Microsoft documentation has more details about how these work with JDBC URLs.

*Flyway doesn’t support Azure Active Directory with MFA, as it is not supported by the Microsoft JDBC drivers.

Limitations

  • Flyway’s automatic detection for whether SQL statements are valid in transactions does not apply to CREATE/ALTER/DROP statements acting on memory-optimised tables (that is, those created with WITH (MEMORY_OPTIMIZED = ON)). You will need to override the executeInTransaction setting to be false, either on a per-script basis or globally.
  • SQL Server is unable to change the default schema for a session. Therefore, setting the flyway.defaultSchema property has no value, unless used for a Placeholder in your sql scripts. If you decide to use flyway.defaultSchema, it also must exist in flyway.schemas.
  • By default, the flyway schema history table will try to write to the default schema for the database connection. You may specify which schema to write this table to by setting flyway.schemas=custom_schema, as the first entry will become the default schema if flyway.defaultSchema itself is not set.
  • With these limitations in mind, please refer to the properties or Options mentioned here for descriptions / consequences.
  • If using the JTDS driver, then setting ANSI_NULLS or QUOTED_IDENTIFIER in a script will cause an error. This is a driver limitation, and can be solved by using the Microsoft driver instead.

DB2